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The Apostle Saint Andrew, the Protoclete

1 of the 12 Apostles; brother of Saint Peter
Born in Galilee in early 1st century, martyred in mid-late 1st century in Patras, Acahia in the Roman Empire
Major shrines: Duomo Cathedral, Amalfi, Italy; St Andrew's Cathedral, Patras, Greece
Patron Saint of Scotland, Barbados, Georgia, Ukraine, Russia, Sicily, Greece, Cyprus, Romania
Feast day - 30 November

Catechesis by Pope Benedict XVI
General Audience, Wednesday 14 June 2006 - in Croatian, English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese & Spanish

"Dear brothers and sisters,
In the last two catecheses we spoke about the figure of St Peter. Now, in the measure that sources allow us, we want to know the other eleven Apostles a bit better. Therefore, today we shall speak of Simon Peter's brother, St Andrew, who was also one of the Twelve. The first striking characteristic of Andrew is his name: it is not Hebrew, as might have been expected, but Greek, indicative of a certain cultural openness in his family that cannot be ignored. We are in Galilee, where the Greek language and culture are quite present. Andrew comes second in the list of the Twelve, as in Matthew (10, 1-4) and in Luke (6, 13-16); or fourth, as in Mark (3, 13-18) and in the Acts (1, 13-14). In any case, he certainly enjoyed great prestige within the early Christian communities.

The kinship between Peter and Andrew, as well as the joint call that Jesus addressed to them, is explicitly mentioned in the Gospels. We read: "As he walked by the Sea of Galilee, he saw two brothers, Simon who is called Peter and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea; for they were fishermen. And he said to them, "Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men'" (Mt 4, 18-19; Mk 1, 16-17). From the fourth Gospel we know another important detail: Andrew had previously been a disciple of John the Baptist: and this shows us that he was a man who was searching, who shared in Israel's hope, who wanted better to know the word of the Lord, the presence of the Lord. He was truly a man of faith and hope; and one day he heard John the Baptist proclaiming Jesus as: "the Lamb of God" (Jn 1, 36); so he was stirred, and with another unnamed disciple followed Jesus, the one whom John had called "the Lamb of God". The Evangelist says that "they saw where he was staying; and they stayed with him that day..." (Jn 1, 37-39). Thus Andrew enjoyed precious moments of intimacy with Jesus. The account continues with one important annotation: "One of the two who heard John speak, and followed him, was Andrew, Simon Peter's brother. He first found his brother Simon, and said to him, "We have found the Messiah' (which means Christ). He brought him to Jesus" (Jn 1, 40-43), straightaway showing an unusual apostolic spirit. Andrew then was the first of the Apostles to be called to follow Jesus. Exactly for this reason the liturgy of the Byzantine Church honours him with the nickname: "Protokletos", [protoclete] which means, precisely, "the first called". And it is certain that it is partly because of the family tie between Peter and Andrew that the Church of Rome and the Church of Constantinople feel one another in a special way to be Sister Churches. To emphasize this relationship, my predecessor Pope Paul VI, in 1964, returned the important relic of St Andrew, which until then had been kept in the Vatican Basilica, to the Orthodox Metropolitan Bishop of the city of Patras in Greece, where tradition has it that the Apostle was crucified.

The Gospel traditions mention Andrew's name in particular on another three occasions that tell us something more about this man. The first is that of the multiplication of the loaves in Galilee. On that occasion, it was Andrew who pointed out to Jesus the presence of a young boy who had with him five barley loaves and two fish: not much, he remarked, for the multitudes who had gathered in that place. In this case, it is worth highlighting Andrew's realism. He noticed the boy, that is, he had already asked the question, "But what good is that for so many?", and recognized the insufficiency of his minimal resources. Jesus, however, knew how to make them sufficient for the multitude of people who had come to hear him. The second occasion was at Jerusalem. As he left the city, a disciple drew Jesus' attention to the sight of the massive walls that supported the Temple. The Teacher's response was surprising: he said that of those walls not one stone would be left upon another. Then Andrew, together with Peter, James and John, questioned him: "Tell us, when will this be, and what will be the sign when these things are all to be accomplished?" (Mk 13, 1-4). In answer to this question Jesus gave an important discourse on the destruction of Jerusalem and on the end of the world, in which he asked his disciples to be wise in interpreting the signs of the times and to be constantly on their guard. From this event we can deduce that we should not be afraid to ask Jesus questions but at the same time that we must be ready to accept even the surprising and difficult teachings that he offers us.

Lastly, a third initiative of Andrew is recorded in the Gospels: the scene is still Jerusalem, shortly before the Passion. For the Feast of the Passover, John recounts, some Greeks had come to the city, probably proselytes or God-fearing men who had come up to worship the God of Israel at the Passover Feast. Andrew and Philip, the two Apostles with Greek names, served as interpreters and mediators of this small group of Greeks with Jesus. The Lord's answer to their question - as so often in John's Gospel - appears enigmatic, but precisely in this way proves full of meaning. Jesus said to the two disciples and, through them, to the Greek world: "The hour has come for the Son of man to be glorified. I solemnly assure you, unless a grain of wheat falls to the earth and dies, it remains just a grain of wheat; but if it dies, it produces much fruit" (12, 23-24). Jesus wants to say: Yes, my meeting with the Greeks will take place, but not as a simple, brief conversation between myself and a few others, motivated above all by curiosity. The hour of my glorification will come with my death, which can be compared with the falling into the earth of a grain of wheat. My death on the Cross will bring forth great fruitfulness: in the Resurrection the "dead grain of wheat" - a symbol of myself crucified - will become the bread of life for the world; it will be a light for the peoples and cultures. Yes, the encounter with the Greek soul, with the Greek world, will be achieved in that profundity to which the grain of wheat refers, which attracts to itself the forces of heaven and earth and becomes bread. In other words, Jesus was prophesying about the Church of the Greeks, the Church of the pagans, the Church of the world, as a fruit of his Pasch.

Some very ancient traditions not only see Andrew, who communicated these words to the Greeks, as the interpreter of some Greeks at the meeting with Jesus recalled here, but consider him the Apostle to the Greeks in the years subsequent to Pentecost. They enable us to know that for the rest of his life he was the preacher and interpreter of Jesus for the Greek world. Peter, his brother, travelled from Jerusalem through Antioch and reached Rome to exercise his universal mission; Andrew, instead, was the Apostle of the Greek world. So it is that in life and in death they appear as true brothers - a brotherhood that is symbolically expressed in the special reciprocal relations of the See of Rome and of Constantinople, which are truly Sister Churches.

A later tradition, as has been mentioned, tells of Andrew's death at Patras, where he too suffered the torture of crucifixion. At that supreme moment, however, like his brother Peter, he asked to be nailed to a cross different from the Cross of Jesus. In his case it was a diagonal or X-shaped cross, which has thus come to be known as "St Andrew's cross". This is what the Apostle is claimed to have said on that occasion, according to an ancient story (which dates back to the beginning of the sixth century), entitled The Passion of Andrew: "Hail, O Cross, inaugurated by the Body of Christ and adorned with his limbs as though they were precious pearls. Before the Lord mounted you, you inspired an earthly fear. Now, instead, endowed with heavenly love, you are accepted as a gift. "Believers know of the great joy that you possess, and of the multitude of gifts you have prepared. I come to you, therefore, confident and joyful, so that you too may receive me exultant as a disciple of the One who was hung upon you.... O blessed Cross, clothed in the majesty and beauty of the Lord's limbs!... Take me, carry me far from men, and restore me to my Teacher, so that, through you, the one who redeemed me by you, may receive me. Hail, O Cross; yes, hail indeed!" Here, as can be seen, is a very profound Christian spirituality. It does not view the Cross as an instrument of torture but rather as the incomparable means for perfect configuration to the Redeemer, to the grain of wheat that fell into the earth. Here we have a very important lesson to learn: our own crosses acquire value if we consider them and accept them as a part of the Cross of Christ, if a reflection of his light illuminates them. It is by that Cross alone that our sufferings too are ennobled and acquire their true meaning.

The Apostle Andrew, therefore, teaches us to follow Jesus with promptness, to speak enthusiastically about him to those we meet, and especially to cultivate a relationship of true familiarity with him, acutely aware that in him alone can we find the ultimate meaning of our life and death."


"J’accueille avec joie les pèlerins de langue française, présents à cette audience, en particulier la Fraternité de la Famille Missionnaire Donum Dei, de Nouvelle-Calédonie, et les jeunes de Paris et de Saint Maur. Puissiez-vous, comme saint André, accueillir l’appel du Christ et être toujours prêts à témoigner de lui !

I welcome all the English-speaking visitors present, including groups from England, Ireland, Japan, Malaysia, Taiwan, South Africa and the United States. I greet in particular the Felician Sisters gathered in Rome for their General Chapter. Upon all of you and your families, I invoke God’s abundant blessing of peace and joy!

Mit diesen Gedanken grüße ich die Pilger und Besucher aus den deutschsprachigen Ländern. Das Beispiel des Apostels Andreas möge euch allen zum Ansporn für ein wahrhaft christliches Leben werden. Laßt euch von Christus rufen, folgt ihm nach und werdet zu Zeugen seiner göttlichen Erlöserliebe. Dazu erbitte ich euch von Herzen Gottes reichen Segen. - Einen frohen und gesegneten Tag!

Saludo a los peregrinos de España y América Latina, especialmente a los feligreses de las parroquias de San José de Utrera, San Miguel Arcángel de Lima y Emmanuel de Santiago de Chile. Como el Apóstol Andrés, seguid a Cristo con prontitud, anunciadlo con entusiasmo, cultivad con Él una relación de verdadera familiaridad, conscientes de que las cruces y los sufrimientos adquieren su verdadero sentido si se acogen como parte de la Cruz de Cristo.

Ao recorrer à intercessão deste grande apóstolo, peço a todos os peregrinos presentes de língua portuguesa, especialmente os grupos vindos de Portugal e do Brasil, que rezem pela unidade da Igreja e pela comunhão de todos os cristãos. Com a minha bênção Apostólica.

Vítám poutníky z farnosti Klatovy! V tomto měsíci červnu prosme Ježíše, který je tichý a pokorný srdcem, aby přetvořil naše srdce podle srdce svého. Všem vám žehnám. Chvála Kristu!

Upućujem srdačan pozdrav svim hodočasnicima iz Hrvatske! Predragi, svjedočite svoju vjeru čestim pohodom Gospodinu Isusu, otajstveno prisutnom u Svetohraništima crkava, kako bi ispunjeni mirom i ljubavlju napredovali u svetosti. Hvaljen Isus i Marija!

Širdingai sveikinu čia atvykusius lietuvius! Linkiu, kad šioje maldingoje kelionėje rastumėte tvirtybės būti ištikimais tiesos ir meilės Dvasios liudytojais. Iš Dievo, mūsų Išganytojo, meldžiu palaiminimo jums ir jūsų šeimoms. Garbė Jėzui Kristui!

Serdecznie pozdrawiam wszystkich pielgrzymów. W przededniu Uroczystości Najświętszego Ciała i Krwi Pańskiej zwracamy nasze serca ku Chrystusowi obecnemu w tajemnicy Eucharystii. Z wiarą w Jego słowa: „To jest Ciało moje... To jest Krew moja...” przystępujemy do tego źródła łaski, dziękując Bogu za tak wielki znak Jego miłości. Komunia św. i adoracja eucharystyczna niech wszystkich nas uświęca.

Szeretettel köszöntöm a magyar híveket, akik Miskolcról érkeztek! A héten van Úrnapja, az Oltáriszentség nagy ünnepe. A gyakori és méltó szentáldozás legyen lelki életünk forrása. Szívből adom Rátok és családjaitokra Apostoli Áldásomat. Dicsértessék a Jézus Krisztus!

* * *

Rivolgo un cordiale benvenuto ai pellegrini di lingua italiana. In particolare saluto voi, cari soci dell'Azione Cattolica di Aversa, accompagnati dal vostro Pastore Mons. Mario Milano, e mentre vi ringrazio per la vostra presenza, vi incoraggio a perseverare nei vostri buoni propositi, auspicando per ciascuno copiosi doni di serenità e di pace. Saluto inoltre voi, cari bambini della Diocesi di Castellaneta, che siete venuti col vostro Vescovo Mons. Pietro Fragnelli. Vi assicuro il mio ricordo nella preghiera e vi auguro di essere sempre testimoni di Gesù, suoi piccoli missionari nell'odierna società.

Rivolgo, infine, un cordiale saluto ai giovani, ai malati e agli sposi novelli. La festa del Corpus Domini è occasione propizia per approfondire la fede e l'amore verso l'Eucaristia. Cari giovani, nutritevi spesso del Corpo e del Sangue di Cristo, nostro cibo spirituale, e progredirete sulla via della santità. L'Eucaristia sia per voi, cari malati, il sostegno, la luce e il conforto nella prova e nella sofferenza. E voi, cari sposi novelli, sappiate trarre da questo Sacramento l'energia spirituale per vivere il grande amore di cui Cristo ci ha dato la prova, donandoci il suo Corpo ed il suo Sangue.

Domani, festa del Corpus Domini, come ogni anno, celebreremo alle ore 19 la Santa Messa nella Piazza di San Giovanni in Laterano. Al termine, seguirà la solenne processione che, percorrendo Via Merulana, si concluderà a Santa Maria Maggiore. Invito la Comunità cristiana a unirsi in questo atto di profonda fede verso l'Eucaristia, che costituisce il più prezioso tesoro della Chiesa e dell'umanità."

Benedict XVI's Letter on the Feast of St Andrew the Apostle
to His Holiness Bartholomaios I, Archbishop fo Constantinople, Ecumenical Patriarch
- in English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese & Spanish

To His Holiness Bartholomaios I
Archbishop of Constantinople
Ecumenical Patriarch

It is with great joy that I write this letter to you, to be delivered by my Venerable Brother Cardinal Kurt Koch, President of the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity, on the occasion of the Feast of Saint Andrew the Apostle, brother of Saint Peter and Patron of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, in order to wish Your Holiness and the Members of the Holy Synod, the clergy, the monks and all the faithful an abundance of heavenly gifts and divine blessings.

On this joyful feast-day, in union with all my Catholic brothers and sisters, I join you in giving thanks to God for the wonders he has worked, in his infinite mercy, through the mission and martyrdom of Saint Andrew. By generously offering their lives in sacrifice for the Lord and for their brethren, the Apostles proved the credibility of the Good News that they proclaimed to the ends of the known world. The Feast of the Apostle, which falls on this day in the liturgical calendars of both East and West, issues a strong summons to all those who by God’s grace and through the gift of Baptism have accepted that message of salvation to renew their fidelity to the Apostolic teaching and to become tireless heralds of faith in Christ through their words and the witness of their lives.

In modern times, this summons is as urgent as ever and it applies to all Christians. In a world marked by growing interdependence and solidarity, we are called to proclaim with renewed conviction the truth of the Gospel and to present the Risen Lord as the answer to the deepest questions and spiritual aspirations of the men and women of our day.

If we are to succeed in this great task, we need to continue our progress along the path towards full communion, demonstrating that we have already united our efforts for a common witness to the Gospel before the people of our day. For this reason I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Your Holiness and to the Ecumenical Patriarchate for the generous hospitality offered last October on the island of Rhodes to the Delegates of the Catholic Episcopal Conferences of Europe who came together with representatives of the Orthodox Churches in Europe for the Second Catholic-Orthodox Forum on the theme "Church-State Relations: Theological and Historical Perspectives".

Your Holiness, I am following attentively your wise efforts for the good of Orthodoxy and for the promotion of Christian values in many international contexts. Assuring you of a remembrance in my prayers on this Feast of Saint Andrew the Apostle, I renew my good wishes for peace, well-being and abundant spiritual blessings to you and to all the faithful.

With sentiments of esteem and spiritual closeness, I gladly extend to you a fraternal embrace in the name of our one Lord Jesus Christ.

From the Vatican, 30 November 2010

© Copyright 2010 - Libreria Editrice Vaticana